A Geochemical Atlas of North Carolina

Overview

This section, adapted from Reid (1993a) provides and overview of the Geochemical Atlas of North Carolina. Click on hyperlinks to view image maps of interest; use your browser to navigate back from image maps. The images are accessed through the "Table to view image maps."

A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A. was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained.

The data are displayed in image maps using inflection points. Inflection points are an effective way to display ranges of data. An inflection point is a color style that provides interpolation of data. The colors at the top and bottom ranges spread to, but never reach, the inflection point color. For example, if the inflection point is white, and to top and bottom range colors are blue and red respectively, the color spreads from blue to white, and from white to red. The ranges closest to the inflection point are either very pale blue or red, but they never actually become white.

The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality.

The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La. Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream sediment samples was analyzed for gold.

The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only very general indication of geochemical distribution patterns and should not be used for site specific studies. Limitations of the NURE database are found in Reid (1991, 1993b,c).

Further information about the NURE database in North Carolina is found in the references cited below. Key reports are NC Geological Survey Bulletins 93 and 94, and Open-file reports (93-1 through 93-34). Sargent et al. (1982) report the North Carolina results in a publication that consists of a brief text and microfiche listing of the field and analytical data. The data were originally organized in two-degree quadrangles of the U.S. National Map series. Sargent et al. (1982) list the quadrangle names and the original report numbers. Recently Hoffman and Buttleman (1994) provided that NURE data for the conterminous United States on CD-ROM.

Additional geochemical analyses have been compiled but are not yet ready for posting on our Internet site. Contact Jeff Reid [(919) 733-2423 or Jeff.Reid@ncmail.net] at the NCGS for additional information about these other data.

Click here to go to the NC Geological Survey publication list and navigate to the bulletins and open-file reports for information on bulletins and open-file reports on the NURE database. The data is available in digital format; contact the NC Geological Survey’s map and publication sales office for special ordering information and pricing for the digital data. The image maps were prepared by Robert Carpenter.

 

Examples

Regional exploration geochemical data of the type presented in the printed atlas and these graphics are often used for mineral exploration. Analyses with elemental concentrations sufficiently higher than average concentrations (background) for an area or rock type are said to be anomalous and may indicate mineralization. Generally, follow-up detailed geochemical sampling is done to evaluate such areas. Different backgrounds are usually found in rock units of distinctive lithologies. Sometimes the commodity of interest is determined directly; sometimes other elements (pathfinders) that are associated with the commodity or interest are determined an analyzed.

 

Inner Coastal Plain: Ilmenite, rutile, zircon heavy-mineral resources

For example, a consulting geologist used the titanium map of Sargent et al. (1982) to recognize a major titanium anomaly along the Fall Zone of eastern North Carolina and subsequently recognized the potential for heavy-mineral exploration in North Carolina. This led to the discovery of a world-class district in size and value of ilmenite with subordinate rutile and zircon.

Zircon is a potential economic mineral in the heavy-mineral suite. The NURE database does not contain zirconium analyses; however, both hafnium (Hf) and thorium (Th) were analyzed. The geologic occurrence of hafnium is virtually restricted to the mineral zircon. The concentration range varies from 0.2 to 7 percent hafnium. A useful relationship is hafnium/60 equals "zircon." Therefore hafnium portrays the concentration of "zircon" in stream sediments.

 

Inner Coastal Plain: Monazite and xenotime heavy-mineral resource potential

The geochemical signature of the North Carolina Coastal Plain changes markedly through Johnston County. The Inner Coastal Plain sediments to the north are dominated by a heavy-mineral suite of ilmenite, rutile, and zircon. To the south a preliminary interpretation of geochemical data are that the Inner Coastal Plain sediments are dominated by "light-colored" heavy minerals (monazite and xenotime) bearing yittrium (Y), cerium (Ce), and phosphorous (P). Cerium distribution outlines the three monazite belts which cross the state.

Cerium and yttrium are primarily hosted in monazite and xenotime. These elements suggest possible concentrations of monazite and xenotime along the Fall Zone south of Johnston County.

 

Health statistics and environmental epidemiology

Environmental epidemiology scientists make use of such data because it is helpful to establish background concentrations for inorganic elements in studies which evaluate potential environmental contamination. Among the elements of interest are manganese, arsenic, chromium, lead, beryllium, vanadium, cadmium, barium, zinc, and selenium. Some of these are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) elements; others are not.

In contaminated sites, background values of some elements can vary by more than several orders of magnitude. Overall, the stream sediment data provide a more comprehensive picture as to the background and to help in overall risk assessment.

 

Environment

Exploration geochemical data provide a baseline from which to assess pollution at the time of the survey and to measure changes in trace elements in the environment through time.

 

pH

The pH of groundwater is not only important to interpret geochemical data but also to other applications including road construction and maintenance. Low pH waters corrode metal and cement objects in roadbeds, reduce their service life, making vegetation difficult, and because of increased runoff and erosion may lead to slope failure. Because road cuts are revegetated only with difficulty in acidic materials, runoff is high and underdrain may become clogged. Recognition of areas with low pH values can focus inspection programs; its early recognition can result in a change in construction materials to minimize loss.

The Coastal Plain is dominated by low pH values. Low pH values correspond to the distribution of the Cretaceous Black Creek Formation which contains abundant pyrite. Road construction in the western mountains region and Piedmont of the state may cross sulfide-bearing strata. When the sulfide-bearing strata are exposed during road construction, they weather to produce sulfuric acid which may degrade high quality stream waters. Information like this provides base-level data to assess potential subsequent stream acidification. Expected acidic conditions assists planners to design routes to minimize sulfide-bearing rocks which contributes to this problem. Because of the proposed expansion of the road-building program in North Carolina, this information may be more widely used to identify potential problems before property acquisitions occur or routes are selected. Such data also alerts planners of potential mineralization which may affect route selection. In some cases, mineralization may result in route changes.

 

Table to view image maps

Note: Cells without a link indicate no data from the NURE data set. Robert H. Carpenter (NC Geological Survey, retired) prepared these image maps prior to his retirement in mid-1999.

Element or relation Map of groundwater data Map of stream sediment data
Alkalinity yes yes
Aluminum yes yes
Arsenic   yes
Barium   yes
Beryllium   yes
Bromine yes  
Calcium   yes
Cerium   yes
Chlorine yes  
Chromium   yes
Cobalt   yes
Conductivity yes yes (stream water)
Copper   yes
Dysprosium   yes
Europium   yes
Extractable uranium   yes
Fluorine yes  
Gold   yes
Hafnium   yes
Iron   yes
Lanthanum   yes
Lead   yes
Lithium   yes
Lutetium   yes
Magnesium yes yes
Manganese yes yes
Molybdenum   yes
Nickel   yes
Niobium   yes
pH yes yes (from sampled water)
Phosphorous   yes
Potassium   yes
Samarium   yes
Scandium   yes
Selenium   yes
Silver   yes
Sodium yes yes
Thorium   yes
Tin   yes
Titanium   yes
Tungsten   yes
Uranium/conductivity yes  
Uranium yes yes
Vanadium yes yes
Ytterbium   yes
Zinc   yes

 

For further reading

Hoffman, J.D., and Buttleman, Kim, 1994. National Geochemical Data Base: National Uranium Resource Evaluation Data for the Conterminous United States, U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-18-A.

This report contains the original NURE data, explanations and limitations in digital format.

Reid, Jeffrey C., 1991. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina – NURE database and geochemical applications for state government, abstract, 15th International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, Reno, NV, p. 38.

Reid, Jeffrey C., 1993a. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., in F.W. Dickson and L.C. Hsu (Editors), Geochemical Exploration 1991, J. Geochemical Exploration, v. 47, p. 11-27.

Sargent, K.A., Cook, J.R., and Fay, W.M., 1982, Data report: North and South Carolina, National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, Hydrochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance: E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, contract DE-AC09-76SR000001 (DPST-81-146-22; GBJX-102), 45pp. plus microfiche.

This report contains the original NURE data, explanations and limitations in microfiche format. This report is not available for sale from the NC Geological Survey.


SPECIAL NOTE: The following lists key NC Geological Survey NURE reports for North Carolina. Open-file report 93-1 through Open-file report 93-34 are companion reports to Bulletin 93 and Bulletin 94; explanations and limitations of the data are included in these reports. These reports provide sample location and analyses for each of the 1:100,000-scale map areas to which they correspond. The entire set of Open-file reports 93-1 through Open-file report 93-34, along with Bulletin 93 and Bulletin 94 is available for $150.00. The NCGS will provide diskettes of the entire data set for an additional $25.00, but only with the purchase of the complete NURE data set. Diskettes will not be sold separately. Diskettes can be provided in most common spreadsheet formats upon request; contact the NCGS for details and your needs in conjunction with your order. Contact our map and publication office for ordering information (insert hyperlink here).


Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variable of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Virginia Beach, Currituck Sound Manteo and Cape Hatteras 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-34. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size location maps show the location of 2 stream sediment sites, 0 supplemental sites, 34 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Currituck and Dare counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variable of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Moorhead City 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-33. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size location maps show the location of 23 stream sediment sites, 0 supplemental sites, 68 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Carven, Carteret and Pamlico counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Bayboro 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-32. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 53 stream sediment sites, 0 supplemental sites, 131 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Beaufort, Craven, Hyde and Pamlico counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Plymouth 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-31. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 567 stream sediment sites, 0 supplemental sites, 153 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Tyrell, Washington, Beaufort, Bertie, Hyde and Martin counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Norfolk and Elizabeth City 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-30. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 174 stream sediment sites, 0 supplemental sites, 246 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Gates, Hertford, Bertie, Currituck and Camden counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Wilmington and Cape Fear 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-29. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 39 stream sediment sites, 0 supplemental sites, 64 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Brunswick, New Hanover and Pender counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the New River 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-28. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 126 stream sediment sites, 31 supplemental sites, 203 groundwater sites and 30 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Carven, Currituck, Duplin, Jones, Onslow and Pender counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Kinston 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-27. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 172 stream sediment sites, 35 supplemental sites, 287 groundwater sites and 22 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Beaufort, Cumberland, Duplin, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Pitt and Wayne counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Rocky Mount 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-26. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 208 stream sediment sites, 70 supplemental sites, 286 groundwater sites and 6 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Beaufort, Bertie, Edgecombe, Green, Martin, Nash, Pitt, Wilson and Wayne counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Emporia and Roanoke Rapids 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-25. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 252 stream sediment sites, 195 supplemental sites, 324 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Beaufort, Bertie, Edgecombe, Green, Martin, Nash, Pitt, Wilson and Wayne counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Whiteville and Myrtle Beach 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-24. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 252 stream sediment sites, 195 supplemental sites, 324 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Pender and Robeson counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Elizabethtown 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-23. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 173 stream sediment sites, 70 supplemental sites, 334 groundwater sites and 70 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Bladen, Cumberland, Duplin, Pender, Robeson and Sampson counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Fayetteville 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-22. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 237 stream sediment sites, 237 supplemental sites, 312 groundwater sites and 97 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Cumberland, Duplin, Harnett, Johnston, Sampson and Wayne counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Raleigh 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-21. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 342 stream sediment sites, 299 supplemental sites, 198 groundwater sites and 3 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Jones, Nash, Orange, Wake, Wilson, Wayne, Chatham, Durham Franklin, Harnett and Lee counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the South Boston 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-20. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 401 stream sediment sites, 401 supplemental sites, 214 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Durham, Franklin, Granville, Nash, Orange, Person, Vance, Wake and Warren counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Laurinburg and Florence 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-19. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 157 stream sediment sites, 89 supplemental sites, 239 groundwater sites and 43 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Anson, Columbus, Hoke, Robeson, Richmond and Scotland counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Southern Pines 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-18. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 295 stream sediment sites, 295 supplemental sites, 220 groundwater sites and 29 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Anson, Hoke, Harnett, Lee, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond and Scotland counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Chapel Hill 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-17. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 325 stream sediment sites, 324 supplemental sites, 199 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Alamance, Chatham, Guilford, Lee, Montgomery, Moore, Orange, and Randolph counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Danville and Greensboro 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-16. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size location maps show the location of 288 stream sediment sites, 288 supplemental sites, 211 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Alamance, Caswell, Guilford, Orange, Person and Rockingham counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Lancaster 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-15. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 92 stream sediment sites, 92 supplemental sites, 57 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Anson and Union counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Charlotte 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-14. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 257 stream sediment sites, 255 supplemental sites, 185 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Anson, Cabarrus, Gaston, Lincoln, Mecklenburg, Montgomery, Richmond, Stanley and Union counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Salisbury 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-13. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.00.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 301 stream sediment sites, 292 supplemental sites, 195 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Catawba, Davie, Davidson, Iredell, Lincoln, Randolph and Rowan counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Galax and Winston-Salem 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-12. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 414 stream sediment sites, 414 supplemental sites, 219 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Allegheny,Davie, Forsyth, Guilford, Iredell, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry, Wilkes and Yadkin counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Gastonia 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-11. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 223 stream sediment sites, 223 supplemental sites, 132 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, Polk and Rutherford counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Hickory 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-10. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 350 stream sediment sites, 350 supplemental sites, 181 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Cleveland, Iredell, Lincoln, McDowell, Alexander, Avery, Burke and Caldwell counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Hickory 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-9. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $5.00.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 390 stream sediment sites, 389 supplemental sites, 201 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Alexander, Allegheny, Ashe, Avery, Caldwell, Wilkes and Watauga counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Hickory 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-8. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 56 stream sediment sites, 19 supplemental sites, 160 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Jackson, Polk, Rutherford, Transylvania, Buncombe, Henderson and Haywood counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Asheville 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-7. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $4.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 355 stream sediment sites, 219 supplemental sites, 248 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Avery, Buncombe, Haywood, McDowell, Madison, Mitchell and Yancey counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Johnson City 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-6. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 47 stream sediment sites, 43 supplemental sites, 9 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Avery, Madison, Mitchell and Yancey counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Fontana Lake and Toccoa 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-5. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $3.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 371 stream sediment sites, 5 supplemental sites, 161 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Cherokee, Clay, Grahm, Haywood, Jackson, Macon, Swain and Transylvania counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Knoxville 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. Open-file report 93-4. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 74 stream sediment sites, 0 supplemental sites, 17 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Haywood, Jackson and Swain counties, North Carolina.

Carpenter, Robert H., and Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993. Listing of concentrations of variables of stream sediment, stream water, and groundwater for the Cleveland and Dalton 30 x 60-minute quadrangles. Open-file report 93-3. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $2.50.

This open-file report accompanied by page-size maps show the location of 51 stream sediment sites, 70 supplemental sites, 26 groundwater sites and 0 stream water sites. This report covers portions of Cherokee county, North Carolina.

Reid, Jeffrey C., and Carpenter, Robert H. 1993. Listing of concentrations (groundwater and stream water) of variables which equal or exceed the 90th percentiles, and pH and conductivity below the 10th percentile in the North Carolina portion of the NURE database. Open-file report 93-2. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $8.50.

This open-file report provides cumulative frequency tables by element and chemical parameter. Data beyond these thresholds are available in electronic spreadsheet format. Prospective clients should contact the NCGS about electronic format before placing orders.

Reid, Jeffrey C., and Carpenter, Robert H. 1993. Listing of concentrations (stream sediments) of variables which equal or exceed the 90th percentiles, and pH and conductivity below the 10th percentile in the North Carolina portion of the NURE database. Open-file report 93-1. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $12.50.

This open-file report provides cumulative frequency tables by element and chemical parameter. Data beyond these thresholds are available in electronic spreadsheet format. Prospective clients should contact the NCGS about electronic format before placing orders.

Reid, Jeffrey C. 1991b. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina. Bulletin 93. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $26.50.

This report presents in atlas format the concentration and distribution of geochemical constituents in stream sediments statewide. These data were the result of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The elements in the database are pathfinder elements to seek uranium deposits; subsequent analyses of these samples resulted in supplemental geochemical analyses.

This report is a companion to Bulletin 94 which presents hydrochemical concentrations for many elements from domestic water supply wells. The entire NURE set (including NCGS open-file reports 93-1 -- open-file 93-34 and bulletins 93 and 94) are available for $150.00. NURE diskettes are $25.00 with the purchase of the complete NURE set. Diskettes are not sold separately.

Reid, Jeffrey C. 1993c. A hydrochemical atlas of North Carolina. Bulletin 94. North Carolina Geological Survey: Raleigh. Price: $15.50.

This report presents, in atlas format, the concentration and distribution of geochemical constituents in domestic water wells. These data were the result of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The elements in the database are pathfinder elements to seek uranium deposits.

This report is a companion to Bulletin 93 which presents stream sediment concentrations for many elements. The entire NURE set (including NCGS Open-file reports 93-1 -- Open-file reports 93-34 and Bulletins 93 and 94) is available for $150.00. NURE diskettes are $25.00 with the purchase of the complete NURE set. Diskettes are not sold separately.